Men’s Fertility: Your Questions Answered

Posted by Kim
August 26, 2021

Offering you clarity towards an uncertain, overlooked and often ignored topic…

For so long we have placed the onus of responsibility regarding fertility on women which has been consolidated by a fragmented and patriarchal medical system.

Mens health isn’t considered to be a contributing problem in sub-fertility when they have already had one child in the past – regardless of recurrent miscarriages with a new partner, and is therefore never routinely checked.

But here’s the stark reality and uncomfortable truth. Infertility is not all about the women! In fact, 50% of cases the problem is sperm related.

The majority of men (85%) whose partners have had recurrent miscarriages have high sperm DNA damage.

Men need better support and guidance with fertility. From adequate testing at the right time to clear and concise information about how to support sperm health.

Exact range of tests enables men to make an informed choice about the best fertility treatment for both them and their partners.

To help offer you some clarity, reassurance and direction, we’ve answered some of your fertility questions…

1. Have you been trying to get pregnant for more than a year?

15% of all couples do not succeed in having a baby after one year of trying. Female infertility tends to be the immediate assumed reason for this; however, male infertility is solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases globally and contributes to 50% of cases overall. The first step in testing male infertility is usually semen analysis, however, semen analysis does not measure all key factors affecting a man’s fertility and does not indicate the quality of the sperm. Checking to see if you have healthy sperm DNA could provide you with early answers as to why you have not been able to get your partner pregnant. Men with sperm DNA damage have less chance of getting their partner pregnant.

The good news is that you may be able to adjust your lifestyle to improve the quality of your sperm and increase the chances of conceiving naturally.

2. How can you improve your sperm health?

Sperm are your body’s specialist cell designed to transport your DNA to your partner’s egg. You make new batches of sperm every three months and simple lifestyle changes can help you improve the quantity and quality of your sperm.

DNA damage (fragmentation) is sometimes caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces free radicals which attack the DNA molecule causing breaks in the DNA strands. Sperm DNA damage is often associated with underlying medical conditions (including: varicocele, infection or fever), or certain lifestyle choices (including: drinking, smoking or heat).

The power to improve your fertility is in your hands. A few lifestyle changes can make a difference to the quality of your sperm DNA:


Smoking over 20 cigarettes a day has been shown to reduce sperm count and motility. Tobacco contains over 4,000 ingredients and lots of them are toxic to sperm including cyanide, carbon monoxide, lead, cadmium and ammonia. One of the big problems with smoking is that it produces lots of ‘free radicals’ and these can kill sperm or make them dysfunctional. Smokers often have lower sperm counts, more abnormal looking sperm and slower swimmers. In one study, 42% of men who smoked couldn’t have a family compared to 28% of non-smokers.


Drinking more than 2 pints of beer or 1 large glass of wine a day increases your risk of infertility. Alcohol can reduce sperm count and motility. When starting a family, try to keep alcohol intake to a minimum for at least 3 months prior to trying for a baby. UK guidelines say that men trying for a baby shouldn’t drink more than 3-4 units of alcohol a week.


Stress can limit sperm production and quality by producing free radicals, but one of the worst results of stress is it can put you off sex. Taking some of the stress out of your life can go a long way to improving your sperm quality.


Until recently, nobody thought age affected a man’s ability to father children. However, the latest figures show that men over 45 make up nearly a quarter of fertility consultations. Ageing causes sperm DNA damage. Even if your partner gets pregnant, this damage can cause both short and long-term problems for your child’s health.

Recreational drugs

Cannabis damages sperm in many ways. It slows sperm down and changes the way they act, making it harder for them to find the egg and to penetrate it when they do. Regular cannabis use over a few years can permanently reduce a man’s ability to make sperm.


Being overweight (having a body mass index of over 25) may affect the quality and quantity of your sperm. Regular exercise with healthy eating is essential to lose weight and maintain a balanced lifestyle.


Sperm production works best at a lower temperature than your normal body temperature (which is why the testes are where they are). So, if you increase your testicular heat, it’s bad for your sperm. If you wear compression shorts or tight underwear, spend all day sitting at a desk or even do lots of cycling, you can damage your sperm. Changing these habits can dramatically improve sperm production and quality.


Making sure you regularly eat a healthy balanced diet is important for healthy sperm. Just like you, sperm need lots of different nutrients to function properly. Your diet should have:

Lots of fruit and steamed vegetables
Some starchy foods like bread, rice, potatoes and pasta
Some protein like meat, fish, eggs and beans
Some milk, yoghurt and cheese
Not too much fat, sugar or salt

3. Have you had a miscarriage?

Almost a quarter of couples trying to have a baby will experience a miscarriage. It is little known that high levels of damage to sperm DNA can more than double the risk of miscarriage. To give yourself the best chance of getting your partner pregnant and having a healthy baby, your sperm DNA needs to be good quality.

Examen research shows that sperm from men whose partners have a history of miscarriage have higher levels of DNA damage (fragmentation) than sperm from those whose partners deliver healthy babies. We have observed high sperm DNA damage in over 85% of men whose partners had recurrent miscarriages. This was true for couples who conceived naturally as well as those who conceived with fertility treatment. By understanding the quality of your sperm DNA, you can begin to take the appropriate next steps, which could lead towards starting a family and becoming a dad.

Stress can reduce sperm quality, as well as smoking, obesity and other avoidable lifestyle factors. The power to improve the quality of your sperm is in your hands. You can help to reduce your sperm oxidative stress levels by making healthier choices such as eating a better diet, taking more exercise, reducing weight, stopping smoking, reducing alcohol intake and keeping your testes cool!

This is by no means the only answer to the problem, but it can make a big difference.


4. Have you had unsuccessful fertility treatment?

Male infertility is the single biggest factor that causes couples to try IVF treatment.

Over a third of couples (37%) that choose to try IVF treatment, do so because of male infertility. Male infertility is the single biggest factor causing couples to opt for treatment. The quality of your sperm DNA can predict the likelihood of assisted reproductive technology (ART) success. This could be IVF or ICSI and it is a fact that you are less likely to get your partner pregnant, even with ART treatment, if you have high sperm DNA damage.

Exact IVF® and Exact ICSI® are sperm DNA damage tests available through fertility specialists, which provide an accurate measure of sperm DNA damage. The information provided can predict the outcome of IVF and ICSI fertility treatment, helping you and your partner to choose the right treatment.

Talk to Kimberley, our lead acupuncturist about Exact tests to understand how they could help you on your treatment journey.


Find Out more about ACUPUNCTURE for Health

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About Kimberley

Kimberley, Acupuncturist and Clinic Director at Life + Lemons, is a registered TCM (Traditional Chinese Medical) Acupuncturist, passionate about helping women reclaim their feminine edge. After graduating with a First Class Honors in York, she has undertaken specialist training in the area of pain management, natural conception, IVF support, menopause + pelvic pain (endometriosis/dysmenorrhea).


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